Getting access to the model

The CSIRO Mk3L climate system model is freely available to the research community. To gain access to the model distribution, complete the online application form here.

Standard reference papers

Phipps, S. J., L. D. Rotstayn, H. B. Gordon, J. L. Roberts, A. C. Hirst and W. F. Budd: The CSIRO Mk3L climate system model version 1.0 - Part 1: Description and evaluation, Geoscientific Model Development, 4, 483-509, doi:10.5194/gmd-4-483-2011, 2011.
Phipps, S. J., L. D. Rotstayn, H. B. Gordon, J. L. Roberts, A. C. Hirst and W. F. Budd: The CSIRO Mk3L climate system model version 1.0 - Part 2: Response to external forcings, Geoscientific Model Development, 5, 649-682, doi:10.5194/gmd-5-649-2012, 2012.

Other model description and evaluation publications

Phipps, S. J.: The CSIRO Mk3L Climate System Model, Technical Report No. 3, Antarctic Climate & Ecosystems CRC, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia, 236pp., ISBN 1-921197-03-X, 2006.
Phipps, S. J.: The CSIRO Mk3L climate system model v1.2, Technical Report No. 4, Antarctic Climate & Ecosystems CRC, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia, 121pp., ISBN 978-1-921197-04-8, 2010.
Mao, J., S. J. Phipps, A. J. Pitman, Y. P. Wang, G. Abramowitz and B. Pak: The CSIRO Mk3L climate system model v1.0 coupled to the CABLE land surface scheme v1.4b: evaluation of the control climatology, Geoscientific Model Development, 4, 1115-1131, doi:10.5194/gmd-4-1115-2011, 2011.
Buchanan, P. J., R. J. Matear, Z. Chase, S. J. Phipps and N. L. Bindoff: Ocean carbon and nitrogen isotopes in CSIRO Mk3L-COAL version 1.0: A tool for palaeoceanographic research, Geoscientific Model Development, 12, 1491-1523, doi:10.5194/gmd-12-1491-2019, 2019.

Special issue of Geoscientific Model Development

Geoscientific Model Development:   The CSIRO Mk3L climate system model
Geoscientific Model Development Discussions:   The CSIRO Mk3L climate system model

Other publications featuring CSIRO Mk3L

Submitted - in review - in revision

Butzin, M., Y. Ye, C. Völker, Ö. Gürses, J. Hauck and P. Köhler: Carbon isotopes in the marine biogeochemistry model FESOM2.1-REcoM3, EGUsphere, doi:10.5194/egusphere-2023-1718, submitted.
Chai, Y., W. R. Berghuijs, Y. Yue, T. A. J. Janssen and H. Dolman: Emergent constraints on the sensitivity of global land surface runoff to temperature based on CMIP6 projections, Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1002/essoar.10506513.1, submitted.
Dutta, A., R. Sivankutty and J. M. Neena: Investigating the Atlantic-monsoon teleconnection pathways in PMIP3 Last Millennium Simulations, Climate Dynamics, submitted.
Falster, G. M., N. M. Wright, N. J. Abram, A. M. Ukkola and B. J. Henley: Emerging anthropogenic influence on Australian multi-year droughts with potential for historically unprecedented megadroughts, EGUsphere, doi:10.5194/egusphere-2023-1398, submitted.
Fillman, N. J., A. Schmittner and K. F. Kvale: Variable Stoichiometry Effects on Glacial/Interglacial Ocean Model Biogeochemical Cycles and Carbon Storage , Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology, submitted.
Roldán-Gómez, P. J., J. F. González-Rouco, J. E. Smerdon and F. García-Pereira: Model and proxy evidence for coordinated changes in the hydroclimate of distant regions over the Last Millennium, Climate of the Past Discussions, doi:10.5194/cp-2023-21, in review for Climate of the Past.


Björklund, J., K. Seftigen, M. Stoffel, M. V. Fonti, S. Kottlow, D. C. Frank, J. Esper, P. Fonti, H. Goosse, H. Grudd, B. E. Gunnarson, D. Nievergelt, E. Pellizzari, M. Carrer and G. von Arx: Fennoscandian tree-ring anatomy shows a warmer modern than medieval climate, Nature, 620, 97-103, doi:10.1038/s41586-023-06176-4, 2023.
Brierley, C., K. Thirumalai, E. Grindrod and J. Barnsley: Indian Ocean variability changes in the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project, Climate of the Past, 19, 681-701, doi:10.5194/cp-19-681-2023, 2023.
Connolly, C., E. A. Barnes, P. Hassanzadeh and M. Pritchard: Using Neural Networks to Learn the Jet Stream Forced Response from Natural Variability, Artificial Intelligence for the Earth Systems, 2, e220094, doi:10.1175/AIES-D-22-0094.1, 2023.
Cuesta-Valero, F. J., H. Beltrami, A. García-García, G. Krinner, M. Langer, A. H. MacDougall, J. Nitzbon, J. Peng, K. von Schuckmann, S. I. Seneviratne, W. Thiery, I. Vanderkelen and T. Wu: Continental heat storage: contributions from the ground, inland waters, and permafrost thawing, Earth System Dynamics, 14, 609-627, doi:10.5194/esd-14-609-2023, 2023.
Fripiat, F., D. M. Sigman, A. Martínez-García, D. Marconi, X. E. Ai, A. Auderset, S. E. Fawcett, S. Moretti, A. S. Studer and G. H. Haug: The Impact of Incomplete Nutrient Consumption in the Southern Ocean on Global Mean Ocean Nitrate δ15N, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 37, e2022GB007442, doi:10.1029/2022GB007442, 2023.
Ge, Y., J. Miao, X. Lang, D. Si and D. Jiang: Combined Impacts of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation on Summer Precipitation in Eastern China During the Medieval Climate Anomaly and Little Ice Age, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 128, e2023JD038920, doi:10.1029/2023JD038920, 2023.
Guo, H., R. Cai and H. Tan: Projected harmful algal bloom frequency in the Yangtze River Estuary and adjacent waters, Marine Environmental Research, 183, 105832, doi:10.1016/j.marenvres.2022.105832, 2023.
Hazarika, A., J. R. Deka, P. C. Nath, G. W. Sileshi, A. J. Nath, K. Giri and A. K. Das: Modelling habitat suitability of the critically endangered Agarwood (Aquilaria malaccensis) in the Indian East Himalayan region, Biodiversity and Conservation, 32, 4787-4803, doi:10.1007/s10531-023-02727-3, 2023.
Kodama, T., A. Nishimoto, K. Nakamura, M. Nakae, N. Iguchi, Y. Igeta and Y. Kogure: Multiple nitrogen sources for primary production inferred from δ13C and δ15N in the southern Sea of Japan, Biogeosciences, 20, 3667-3682, doi:10.5194/bg-20-3667-2023, 2023.
Kuma, P., F. A.-M. Bender and A. R. Jönsson: Climate Model Code Genealogy and Its Relation to Climate Feedbacks and Sensitivity, Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 15, e2022MS003588, doi:10.1029/2022MS003588, 2023.
Langer, M., T. S. von Deimling, S. Westermann, R. Rolph, R. Rutte, S. Antonova, V. Rachold, M. Schultz, A. Oehme and G. Grosse: Thawing permafrost poses environmental threat to thousands of sites with legacy industrial contamination, Nature Communications, 14, 1721, doi:10.1038/s41467-023-37276-4, 2023.
Li, D., D. Folini and M. Wild: Assessment of Top of Atmosphere, Atmospheric and Surface Energy Budgets in CMIP6 Models on Regional Scales, Earth and Space Science, 10, e2022EA002758, doi:10.1029/2022EA002758, 2023.
Liu, S., C. Yuan, J.-J. Luo, X. Ma, X. Zhou and T. Yamagata: Weakening of the Indian Ocean Dipole in the Mid-Holocene due to the Mean Oceanic Climatology Change, Journal of Climate, 16, 5363-5380, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-22-0878.1, 2023.
Miyaji, Y., T. Hasegawa and Y. Tanimoto: Intercomparisons of methods for extracting the internal climate variability from the observed records over the Indo-Pacific sector, International Journal of Climatology, 43, 57-75, doi:10.1002/joc.7729, 2023.
Nitzbon, J., G. Krinner, T. S. von Deimling, M. Werner and M. Langer: First Quantification of the Permafrost Heat Sink in the Earth's Climate System, Geophysical Research Letters, 50, e2022GL102053, doi:10.1029/2022GL102053, 2023.
Schillinger, M., B. Ellerhoff, R. Scheichl and K. Rehfeld: Separating internal and externally forced contributions to global temperature variability using a Bayesian stochastic energy balance framework, Chaos: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science, doi:10.1063/5.0106123, 32, 113146, 2023.
Stout, R. C., C. Proistosescu and G. Roe: Fingerprinting Low-Frequency Last Millennium Temperature Variability in Forced and Unforced Climate Models, Journal of Climate, 36, 7005-7023, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-22-0810.1, 2023.
Yang, K., W. Hua, F. Luo, J. Ming, Q. Hu, X. Wu and G. Fan: The Asian–Pacific oscillation over the past millennium in PMIP3 and PMIP4, Quaternary Science Reviews, 301, 107918, doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2022.107918, 2023.
Zhao, A.: Palaeoclimate modelling of monsoons during past warm periods, PhD thesis, University College London, UK, 2023.
Zhou, X., X. Jin, X. Shi and C. Liu: The change in convection over the Indo-Pacific warm pool in the mid-Holocene and its influence on South Asian precipitation, Quaternary Science Reviews, 322, 108399, doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2023.108399, 2023.


Adeleye, M. A., S. E. Connor, S. G. Haberle, A. Herbert and J. Brown: European colonization and the emergence of novel fire regimes in southeast Australia, The Anthropocene Review, 9, 537-549, doi:10.1177/20530196211044630, 2022.
Adeleye, M. A., S. E. Connor, S. G. Haberle, S. Ivory and P. A. Adeonipekun: Long-term drivers and timing of accelerated vegetation changes in African biomes and their management implications, Global Ecology and Biogeography, 31, 1643-1654, doi:10.1111/geb.13518, 2022.
Barber-O'Malley, B., G. Lassalle, G. Chust, E. Diaz, A. O'Malley, C. P. Blázquez, J. P. Marquina and P. Lambert: HyDiaD: A hybrid species distribution model combining dispersal, multi-habitat suitability, and population dynamics for diadromous species under climate change scenarios, Ecological Modelling, 470, 109997, doi:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2022.109997, 2022.
Buchanan, P. J., A. Tagliabue, C. de la Vega and C. Mahaffey: Oceanographic and biogeochemical drivers cause divergent trends in the nitrogen isoscape in a changing Arctic Ocean, Ambio, 51, 383-397, doi:10.1007/s13280-021-01635-6, 2022.
Chai, Y., Y. Yue, L. J. Slater, J. Yin, A. G. L. Borthwick, T. Chen and G. Wang : Constrained CMIP6 projections indicate less warming and a slower increase in water availability across Asia, Nature Communications, 13, 4124, doi:10.1038/s41467-022-31782-7, 2022.
Chen, W., A. Xiao, P. Braconnot, P. Ciais, N. Viovy and R. Zhang: Mid-Holocene high-resolution temperature and precipitation gridded reconstructions over China: Implications for elevation-dependent temperature changes, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 593, 117656, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2022.117656, 2022.
Hazarika, A., J. R. Deka, K. Majumdar, D. Barman and A. J. Nath: Modelling Changes in Distribution of the Rheophytic Tree Species Barringtonia Acutangula (L.) Gaertn. Due to Climate Change, Forested Wetlands, 42, 94, doi:10.1007/s13157-022-01621-y, 2022.
King, J. M.: Paleoclimate Data Assimilation Over the Common Era, PhD thesis, The University of Arizona, Arizona, USA, 2022.
Liu, Z., X. Lang and D. Jiang: Impact of stratospheric aerosol intervention geoengineering on surface air temperature in China: a surface energy budget perspective, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 22, 7667-7680, doi:10.5194/acp-22-7667-2022, 2022.
Rao, J., C. I. Garfinkel, T. Wu, Y. Lu and M. Chu: Mean State of the Northern Hemisphere Stratospheric Polar Vortex in Three Generations of CMIP Models, Journal of Climate, 35, 4603-4625, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-21-0694.1, 2022.
Shen, T., W. Sun, J. Liu, B. Wang, D. Chen, L. Ning and K. Chen: Secular Changes of the Decadal Relationship Between the Northern Hemisphere Land Monsoon Rainfall and Sea Surface Temperature Over the Past Millennium in Climate Model Simulations, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 127, e2022JD037065, doi:10.1029/2022JD037065, 2022.
Sui, Y. and Y. Chen: Signals in temperature extremes emerge in China during the last millennium based on CMIP5 simulations, Climatic Change, 172, 29, doi:10.1007/s10584-022-03377-0, 2022.
Wright, N. M., C. E. Krause, S. J. Phipps, G. Boschat and N. J. Abram: Influence of long-term changes in solar irradiance forcing on the Southern Annular Mode, Climate of the Past, 18, 1509-1528, doi:10.5194/cp-18-1509-2022, 2022.
Wu, G., J. Chen, J.-S. Kim, L. Gu, J.-H. Lee and L. Zhang: Impacts of climate change on global meteorological multi-year droughts using the last millennium simulation as a baseline, Journal of Hydrology, 610, 127937, doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2022.127937, 2022.
Wu, Y., Y. Liu, W. Zhou and J. Zhang: The mid-Holocene East Asian summer monsoon simulated by PMIP4-CMIP6 and PMIP3-CMIP5: Model uncertainty and its possible sources, Global and Planetary Change, 219, 103986, doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2022.103986, 2022.


Altamirano del Carmen, M. A., F. Estrada and C. Gay-García: A New Method for Assessing the Performance of General Circulation Models Based on Their Ability to Simulate the Response to Observed Forcing, Journal of Climate, 34, 5385-5402, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-20-0510.1, 2021.
Amari, N., S. Vaissi, F. Aghamir, R. Saberi-Pirooz, D. Rödder, E. Ebrahami and F. Ahmadzadeh: Tracking climate change in the spatial distribution pattern and the phylogeographic structure of Hyrcanian wood frog, Rana pseudodalmatina (Anura: Ranidae), Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research, 59, 1604-1619, doi:10.1111/jzs.12503, 2021.
Carneiro, R. Q.: Paleoclimatic drought: rainfall variability analysis, Master's thesis, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Ceará, Brazil, 2021.
Fedorov, A. V., S. Hu, A. T. Wittenberg, A. F. Z. Levine and C. Deser: ENSO Low-Frequency Modulation and Mean State Interactions, in El Niño Southern Oscillation in a Changing Climate, American Geophysical Union and John Wiley and Sons, Inc., ISBN 978-1-119-54812-6 (print) 978-1-119-54811-9 (PDF) 978-1-119-54815-7 (epub), Chapter 8, 173-198, 2021.
Feng, X., Q. Ding, L. Wu, C. Jones, I. Baxter, R. Tardif, S. Stevenson, J. Emile-Geay, J. Mitchell, L. M. V. Carvalho, H. Wang and E. J. Steig: A Multidecadal-Scale Tropically Driven Global Teleconnection over the Past Millennium and Its Recent Strengthening, Journal of Climate, 34, 2549-2565, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-20-0216.1, 2021.
Han, D., J. Huang, L. Ding, X. Liu, C. Li and F. Yang: Oxygen footprint: An indicator of the anthropogenic ecosystem changes, CATENA, 206, 105501, doi:10.1016/j.catena.2021.105501, 2021.
Khabbazan, M. M., M. Stankoweit, E. Roshan, H. Schmidt and H. Held: How can solar geoengineering and mitigation be combined under climate targets?, Earth System Dynamics, 12, 1529-1542, doi:10.5194/esd-12-1529-2021, 2021.
King, J. M., K. J. Anchukaitis, J. E. Tierney, G. J. Hakim, J. Emile-Geay, F. Zhu and R. Wilson: A Data Assimilation Approach to Last Millennium Temperature Field Reconstruction Using a Limited High-Sensitivity Proxy Network, Journal of Climate, 34, 7091-7111, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-20-0661.1, 2021.
Kravitz, B., D. G. MacMartin, D. Visioni, O. Boucher, J. N. S. Cole, J. Haywood, A. Jones, T. Lurton, P. Nabat, U. Niemeier, A. Robock, R. Séférian and S. Tilmes: Comparing different generations of idealized solar geoengineering simulations in the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP), Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 21, 4231-4247, doi:10.5194/acp-21-4231-2021, 2021.
Kumar, P., A. P. Dimri and S. K. Tandon: Modelling of Indian monsoon extremes during 850-2000 AD using the proxy-data from speleothems, Quaternary International, 599-600, 117-127, doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2021.02.009, 2021.
Le, T. and D.-H. Bae: The Indian Ocean Dipole response to external forcing in the coupled model intercomparison project phase 5 simulations of the last millennium, The Holocene, 31, 884-891, doi:10.1177/0959683620988033, 2021.
Lee, J., K. R. Sperber, P. J. Gleckler, K. E. Taylor and C. J. W. Bonfils: Benchmarking Performance Changes in the Simulation of Extratropical Modes of Variability across CMIP Generations, Journal of Climate, 34, 6945-6969, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-20-0832.1, 2021.
Liu, Z., X. Lang and D. Jiang: Impact of Stratospheric Aerosol Injection Geoengineering on the Summer Climate over East Asia, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 126, e2021JD035049, doi:10.1029/2021JD035049, 2021.
Lücke, L. J., A. P. Schurer, R. Wilson and G. C. Hegerl: Orbital Forcing Strongly Influences Seasonal Temperature Trends During the Last Millennium, Geophysical Research Letters, 48, e2020GL088776, doi:10.1029/2020GL088776, 2021.
Planton, Y. Y., E. Guilyardi, A. T. Wittenberg, J. Lee, P. J. Gleckler, T. Bayr, S. McGregor, M. J. McPhaden, S. Power, R. Roehrig, J. Vialard and A. Voldoire: Evaluating Climate Models with the CLIVAR 2020 ENSO Metrics Package, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 102, E193-E217, doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-19-0337.1, 2021.
Privalsky, V.: Verification of General Circulation Models, in Time Series Analysis in Climatology and Related Sciences, Springer, ISBN 978-3-030-58055-1, 163-183, doi:10.1007/978-3-030-58055-1_11, 2021.
Sanchez, S. C. and K. B. Karnauskas: Diversity in the Persistence of El Niño Events Over the Last Millennium, Geophysical Research Letters, 48, e2021GL093698, doi:10.1029/2021GL093698, 2021.
Windisch, M. G., E. L. Davin and S. I. Seneviratne: Prioritizing forestation based on biogeochemical and local biogeophysical impacts, Nature Climate Change, 11, 861-871, doi:10.1038/s41558-021-01161-z, 2021.
Wu, D., C. Zhang, T. Wang, L. Liu, X. Zhang, Z. Yuan, S. Yang and F. Chen: East-west asymmetry in the distribution of rainfall in the Chinese Loess Plateau during the Holocene, CATENA, 207, 105626, doi:10.1016/j.catena.2021.105626, 2021.
Zhang, X., M. Bai, Z. Hao and J. Zheng: Potential causes of megadroughts in North China in the preindustrial period from the teleconnection perspective, Global and Planetary Change, 205, 103596, doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2021.103596, 2021.
Zheng, Y., L. M. Jong, S. J. Phipps, J. L. Roberts, A. D. Moy, M. A. J. Curran and T. D. van Ommen: Extending and understanding the South West Western Australian rainfall record using a snowfall reconstruction from Law Dome, East Antarctica, Climate of the Past, 17, 1973-1987, doi:10.5194/cp-17-1973-2021, 2021.


Brown, J. R., C. M. Brierley, S.-I. An, M.-V. Guarino, S. Stevenson, C. J. R. Williams, Q. Zhang, A. Zhao, A. Abe-Ouchi, P. Braconnot, E. C. Brady, D. Chandan, R. D'Agostino, C. Guo, A. N. LeGrande, G. Lohmann, P. A. Morozova, R. Ohgaito, R. O'ishi, B. Otto-Bliesner, W. R. Peltier, X. Shi, L. Sime, E. M. Volodin, Z. Zhang and W. Zheng: Comparison of past and future simulations of ENSO in CMIP5/PMIP3 and CMIP6/PMIP4 models, Climate of the Past, 16, 1777-1805, doi:10.5194/cp-16-1777-2020, 2020.
Castino, F.: Exploration of ocean mechanical geoengineering alternatives: effect of diapycnal mixing enhancement on the ocean uptake of atmospheric CO2, Master's thesis, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands, 2020.
Chai, J., F. Liu, C. Xing, B. Wang, C. Gao, J. Liu and D. Chen: A robust equatorial Pacific westerly response to tropical volcanism in multiple models, Climate Dynamics, 55, 3413-3429, doi:10.1007/s00382-020-05453-6, 2020.
Dalaiden, Q., H. Goosse, F. Klein, J. T. M. Lenaerts, M. Holloway, L. Sime and E. R. Thomas: How useful is snow accumulation in reconstructing surface air temperature in Antarctica? A study combining ice core records and climate models, The Cryosphere, 14, 1187-1207, doi:10.5194/tc-14-1187-2020, 2020.
Freund, M. B., J. R. Brown, B. J. Henley, D. J. Karoly and J. N. Brown: Warming Patterns Affect El Niño Diversity in CMIP5 and CMIP6 Models, Journal of Climate, 33, 8237-8260, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-19-0890.1, 2020.
Gertler, C. G., P. A. O'Gorman, B. Kravitz, J. C. Moore, S. J. Phipps and S. Watanabe: Weakening of the Extratropical Storm Tracks in Solar Geoengineering Scenarios, Geophysical Research Letters, 47, e2020GL087348, doi:10.1029/2020GL087348, 2020.
Halloran, P. R., I. R. Hall, M. Menary, D. J. Reynolds, J. D. Scourse, J. A. Screen, A. Bozzo, N. Dunstone, S. J. Phipps, A. P. Schurer, T. Sueyoshi, T. Zhou and F. Garry: Natural drivers of multidecadal Arctic sea ice variability over the last millennium, Scientific Reports, 10, 688, doi:10.1038/s41598-020-57472-2, 2020.
Hassan, I., R. M. Kalin, C. J. White and J. A. Aladejana: Selection of CMIP5 GCM Ensemble for the Projection of Spatio-Temporal Changes in Precipitation and Temperature over the Niger Delta, Nigeria, Water, 12, 385, doi:10.3390/w12020385, 2020.
Henry, M. and T. M. Merlis: Forcing Dependence of Atmospheric Lapse Rate Changes Dominates Residual Polar Warming in Solar Radiation Management Climate Scenarios, Geophysical Research Letters, 47, e2020GL087929, doi:10.1029/2020GL087929, 2020.
Jury, M. W., T. Mendlik, S. Tani, H. Truhetz, D. Maraun, W. W. Immerzeel and A. F. Lutz: Climate projections for glacier change modelling over the Himalayas, International Journal of Climatology, 40, 1738-1754, doi:10.1002/joc.6298, 2020.
Kuntz, L. B. and D. P. Schrag: Representation of the Equatorial Undercurrent in CMIP5 Models, Journal of Physical Oceanography, 50, 2997-3007, doi:10.1175/JPO-D-20-0007.1, 2020.
Li, Y., S. Peng, H. Liu, X. Zhang, W. Ye, Q. Han, Y. Zhang, L. Xu and Y. Li: Westerly jet stream controlled climate change mode since the Last Glacial Maximum in the northern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 549, 116529, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2020.116529, 2020.
Naderi, M.: Assessment of water security under climate change for the large watershed of Dorudzan Dam in southern Iran, Hydrogeology Journal, 28, 1553-1574, doi:10.1007/s10040-020-02159-1, 2020.
Rauniyar, S. P. and S. B. Power: The Impact of Anthropogenic Forcing and Natural Processes on Past, Present and Future Rainfall over Victoria, Australia, Journal of Climate, 33, 8087-8106, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-19-0759.1, 2020.
Rehfeld, K., R. Hébert, J. M. Lora, M. Lofverstrom and C. M. Brierley: Variability of surface climate in simulations of past and future, Earth System Dynamics, 11, 447-468, doi:10.5194/esd-11-447-2020, 2020.
Roldán-Gómez, P. J., J. F. González-Rouco, C. Melo-Aguilar and J. E. Smerdon: Dynamical and hydrological changes in climate simulations of the last millennium, Climate of the Past, 16, 1285-1307, doi:10.5194/cp-16-1285-2020, 2020.
Wang, H.: Wiener-Chaos Analysis on Bayesian Models with Applications in Agriculture and Climatology, PhD thesis, Michigan State University, Michigan, USA, 2020.
Wyman, D. A., J. L. Conroy and Christina Karamperidou: The Tropical Pacific ENSO-Mean State Relationship in Climate Models over the Last Millennium, Journal of Climate, 33, 7539-7551, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-19-0673.1, 2020.
Yang, K., W. Hua and Q. Hu: A multi‐model analysis of the East Asian monsoon changes in the Medieval Climate Anomaly and Little Ice Age, International Journal of Climatology, 40, 5084-5097, doi:10.1002/joc.6506, 2020.


Barr, C., J. Tibby, M. J. Leng, J. J. Tyler, A. C. G. Henderson, J. T. Overpeck, G. L. Simpson, J. E. Cole, S. J. Phipps, J. C. Marshall, G. B. McGregor, Q. Hua and F. H. McRobie: Holocene El Niño-Southern Oscillation variability reflected in subtropical Australian precipitation, Scientific Reports, 9, 1627, doi:10.1038/s41598-019-38626-3, 2019.
Bordbar, M. H., M. H. England, A. Sen Gupta, A. Santoso, A. S. Taschetto, T. Martin, W. Park and M. Latif, Nature Communications, 10, 1990, doi:10.1038/s41467-019-09761-2, 2019.
Bothe, O., S. Wagner and E. Zorita: Inconsistencies between observed, reconstructed, and simulated precipitation indices for England since the year 1650 CE, Climate of the Past, 15, 307-334, doi:10.5194/cp-15-307-2019, 2019.
Buchanan, P. J., Z. Chase, R. J. Matear, S. J. Phipps and N. L. Bindoff: Marine nitrogen fixers mediate a low latitude pathway for atmospheric CO2 drawdown, Nature Communications, 10, 4611, doi:10.1038/s41467-019-12549-z, 2019.
Chen, L., W. Zheng and P. Braconnot: Towards understanding the suppressed ENSO activity during mid-Holocene in PMIP2 and PMIP3 simulations, Climate Dynamics, 53, 1095-1110, doi:10.1007/s00382-019-04637-z, 2019.
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PAGES 2k Consortium (R. Neukom, L. A. Barboza, M. P. Erb, F. Shi, J. Emile-Geay, M. N. Evans, J. Franke, D. S. Kaufman, L. Lücke, K. Rehfeld, A. Schurer, F. Zhu, S. Brönnimann, G. J. Hakim, B. J. Henley, F. C. Ljungqvist, N. McKay, V. Valler and L. von Gunten): Consistent multidecadal variability in global temperature reconstructions and simulations over the Common Era, Nature Geoscience, 12, 643-649, doi:10.1038/s41561-019-0400-0, 2019.
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Ackerley, D., J. Reeves, C. Barr, H. Bostock, K. Fitzsimmons, M.-S. Fletcher, C. Gouramanis, H. McGregor, S. Mooney, S. J. Phipps, J. Tibby and J. Tyler: Evaluation of PMIP2 and PMIP3 simulations of mid-Holocene climate in the Indo-Pacific, Australasian and Southern Ocean regions, Climate of the Past, 13, 1661-1684, doi:10.5194/cp-13-1661-2017, 2017.
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Geil, K.: Assessing the 20th Century Performance of Global Climate Models and Application to Climate Change Adaptation Planning, PhD thesis, The University of Arizona, Arizona, USA, 2017.
Geoffroy, O., S. C. Sherwood and D. Fuchs: On the role of the stratiform cloud scheme in the inter-model spread of cloud feedback, Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 9, 423-437, doi:10.1002/2016MS000846, 2017.
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Hope, P., B. J. Henley, J. Gergis, J. Brown and H. Ye: Time-varying spectral characteristics of ENSO over the Last Millennium, Climate Dynamics, 49, 1705-1727, doi:10.1007/s00382-016-3393-z, 2017.
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Kajtar, J. B., A. Santoso, M. H. England and W. Cai: Tropical climate variability: interactions across the Pacific, Indian, and Atlantic Oceans, Climate Dynamics, 48, 2173-2190, doi:10.1007/s00382-016-3199-z, 2017.
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Liu, Z., Y. Tang, Z. Jian, C. J. Poulsen, J. M. Welker and G. J. Bowen: Pacific North American circulation pattern links external forcing and North American hydroclimatic change over the past millennium, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 114, 3340-3345, doi:10.1073/pnas.1618201114, 2017.
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PAGES Hydro2k Consortium (J. E. Smerdon, J. Luterbacher, S. J. Phipps, K. J. Anchukaitis, T. Ault, S. Coats, K. M. Cobb, B. I. Cook, C. Colose, T. Felis, A. Gallant, J. H. Jungclaus, B. Konecky, A. LeGrande, S. Lewis, A. S. Lopatka, W. Man, J. S. Mankin, J. T. Maxwell, B. L. Otto-Bliesner, J. W. Partin, D. Singh, N. J. Steiger, S. Stevenson, J. E. Tierney, D. Zanchettin, H. Zhang, A. R. Atwood, L. Andreu-Hayles, S. H. Baek, B. Buckley, E. R. Cook, R. D'Arrigo, S. G. Dee, M. L. Griffiths, C. Kulkarni, Y. Kushnir, F. Lehner, C. Leland, H. W. Linderholm, A. Okazaki, J. Palmer, E. Piovano, C. C. Raible, M. P. Rao, J. Scheff, G. A. Schmidt, R. Seager, M. Widmann, A. P. Williams and E. Xoplaki): Comparing proxy and model estimates of hydroclimate variability and change over the Common Era, Climate of the Past, 13, 1851-1900, doi:10.5194/cp-13-1851-2017, 2017.
Shi, J., Q. Yan, H. Wang, D. Jiang, J. Min and Y. Jiang: Investigating dynamic mechanisms for synchronous variation of East Asian and Australian summer monsoons over the last millennium, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 480, 70-79, doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2017.05.018, 2017.
Stryhal, J. and R. Huth: Classifications of Winter Euro-Atlantic Circulation Patterns: An Intercomparison of Five Atmospheric Reanalyses, Journal of Climate, 30, 7847-7861, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-17-0059.1, 2017.
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Turney, C. S. M., R. T. Jones, S. J. Phipps, Z. Thomas, A. Hogg, A. P. Kershaw, C. J. Fogwill, J. Palmer, C. Bronk Ramsey, F. Adolphi, R. Muscheler, K. A. Hughen, R. A. Staff, M. Grosvenor, N. R. Golledge, S. O. Rasmussen, D. K. Hutchinson, S. Haberle, A. Lorrey, G. Boswijk and A. Cooper: Rapid global ocean-atmosphere response to Southern Ocean freshening during the last glacial, Nature Communications, 8, 520, doi:10.1038/s41467-017-00577-6, 2017.
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Abram, N. J., H. V. McGregor, J. E. Tierney, M. N. Evans, N. P. McKay, D. S. Kaufman and the PAGES 2k Consortium (K. Thirumalai, B. Martrat, H. Goosse, S. J. Phipps, E. J. Steig, K. Halimeda Kilbourne, C. P. Saenger, J. Zinke, G. Leduc, J. A. Addison, P. Graham Mortyn, M.-S. Seidenkrantz, M.-A. Sicre, K. Selvaraj, H. L. Filipsson, R. Neukom, J. Gergis, M. A. J. Curran and L. von Gunten): Early onset of industrial-era warming across the oceans and continents, Nature, 536, 411-418, doi:10.1038/nature19082, 2016.
Atwood, A. R., E. Wu, D. M. W. Frierson, D. S. Battisti and J. P. Sachs: Quantifying Climate Forcings and Feedbacks over the Last Millennium in the CMIP5-PMIP3 Models, Journal of Climate, 29, 1161-1178, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0063.1, 2016.
Brown, J. R., P. Hope, J. Gergis and B. J. Henley: ENSO teleconnections with Australian rainfall in coupled model simulations of the last millennium, Climate Dynamics, 47, 79-93, doi:10.1007/s00382-015-2824-6, 2016.
Buchanan, P. J., R. J. Matear, A. Lenton, S. J. Phipps, Z. Chase and D. M. Etheridge: The simulated climate of the Last Glacial Maximum and insights into the global marine carbon cycle, Climate of the Past, 12, 2271-2295, doi:10.5194/cp-12-2271-2016, 2016.
Davis, N. A., D. J. Seidel, T. Birner, S. M. Davis and S. Tilmes: Changes in the width of the tropical belt due to simple radiative forcing changes in the GeoMIP simulations, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 16, 10083-10095, doi:10.5194/acp-16-10083-2016, 2016.
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Krause, C. E.: Reconstructing the Australasian monsoon over the last 40,000 years using speleothems and palaeoclimate modelling, PhD thesis, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia, 2016.
Li, C., T. Zhao and K. Ying: Effects of anthropogenic aerosols on temperature changes in China during the twentieth century based on CMIP5 models, Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 125, 529-540, doi:10.1007/s00704-015-1527-6, 2016.
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MacMartin, D. G. and B. Kravitz: Dynamic climate emulators for solar geoengineering, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 16, 15789-15799, doi:10.5194/acp-16-15789-2016, 2016.
Parth Sarthi, P., P. Kumar and S. Ghosh: Possible future rainfall over Gangetic Plains (GP), India, in multi-model simulations of CMIP3 and CMIP5, Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 124, 691-701, doi:10.1007/s00704-015-1447-5, 2016.
Phipps, S. J., C. J. Fogwill and C. S. M. Turney: Impacts of marine instability across the East Antarctic Ice Sheet on Southern Ocean dynamics, The Cryosphere, 10, 2317-2328, doi:10.5194/tc-10-2317-2016, 2016.
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Zanchettin, D., O. Bothe, A. Rubino and J. H. Jungclaus: Multi-model ensemble analysis of Pacific and Atlantic SST variability in unperturbed climate simulations, Climate Dynamics, 47, 1073-1090, doi:10.1007/s00382-015-2889-2, 2016.
Zanchettin, D., M. Khodri, C. Timmreck, M. Toohey, A. Schmidt, E. P. Gerber, G. Hegerl, A. Robock, F. S. R. Pausata, W. T. Ball, S. E. Bauer, S. Bekki, S. S. Dhomse, A. N. LeGrande, G. W. Mann, L. Marshall, M. Mills, M. Marchand, U. Niemeier, V. Paulain, E. Rozanov, A. Rubino, A. Stenke, K. Tsigaridis and F. Tummon: The Model Intercomparison Project on the climatic response to Volcanic forcing (VolMIP): experimental design and forcing input data for CMIP6, Geoscientific Model Development, 9, 2701-2719, doi:10.5194/gmd-9-2701-2016, 2016.
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Abram, N. J., B. C. Dixon, M. G. Rosevear, B. Plunkett, M. K. Gagan, W. S. Hantoro and S. J. Phipps: Optimized coral reconstructions of the Indian Ocean Dipole: An assessment of location and length considerations, Paleoceanography, 30, 1391-1405, doi:10.1002/2015PA002810, 2015.
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Gabriel, C. J. and A. Robock: Stratospheric geoengineering impacts on El Niño/Southern Oscillation, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 15, 11949-11966, doi:10.5194/acp-15-11949-2015, 2015.
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Exbrayat, J.-F., A. J. Pitman and G. Abramowitz: Disentangling residence time and temperature sensitivity of microbial decomposition in a global soil carbon model, Biogeosciences, 11, 6999-7008, doi:10.5194/bg-11-6999-2014, 2014.
Goodwin, I. D., S. A. Browning and A. J. Anderson: Climate windows for Polynesian voyaging to New Zealand and Easter Island, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 111, 14716-14721, doi:10.1073/pnas.1408918111, 2014.
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Lorrey, A., N. Fauchereau, C. Stanton, P. Chappell, S. J. Phipps, A. Mackintosh, J. Renwick, I. Goodwin and A. Fowler: The Little Ice Age climate of New Zealand reconstructed from Southern Alps cirque glaciers: a synoptic type approach, Climate Dynamics, 42, 3039-3060, doi:10.1007/s00382-013-1876-8, 2014.
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Haughton, N.: Climate Model Ensemble Generation and Model Dependence, Honours thesis, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia, 2012.
Jiang, D., X. Lang, Z. Tian and T. Wang: Considerable Model-Data Mismatch in Temperature over China during the Mid-Holocene: Results of PMIP Simulations, Journal of Climate, 25, 4135-4153, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00231.1, 2012.
Korty, R. L., S. J. Camargo and J. Galewsky: Variations in Tropical Cyclone Genesis Factors in Simulations of the Holocene Epoch, Journal of Climate, 25, 8196–8211, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00033.1, 2012.
Law, R. M., M. R. Raupach, G. Abramowitz, I. Dharssi, V. Haverd, A. J. Pitman, L. Renzullo, A. Van Dijk and Y.-P. Wang: The Community Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange (CABLE) model Roadmap for 2012-2017, CAWCR Technical Report No. 057, The Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research: A partnership between CSIRO and the Bureau of Meteorology, Australia, 84pp., ISBN 978-1-922173-22-5, 2012.
Lippmann, T.: Natural and anthropogenic drivers of Australian temperature extremes, simulated over the last millennium, Honours thesis, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia, 2012.
Maris, M. N. A., B. de Boer and J. Oerlemans: A climate model intercomparison for the Antarctic region: present and past, Climate of the Past, 8, 803-814, doi:10.5194/cp-8-803-2012, 2012.
Méndez, M., J. Overbey and F. G. Tinetti: Legacy Fortran Software: Applying Syntactic Metrics to Global Climate Models, XVIII Congreso Argentino de Ciencias de la Computación, 2012.
Santoso, A., M. H. England and W. Cai: Impact of Indo-Pacific Feedback Interactions on ENSO Dynamics Diagnosed Using Ensemble Climate Simulations, Journal of Climate, 25, 7743-7763, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00287.1, 2012.
Sen Gupta, A., L. C. Muir, J. N. Brown, S. J. Phipps, P. J. Durack, D. Monselesan and S. E. Wijffels: Climate drift in the CMIP3 models, Journal of Climate, 25, 4621-4640, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00312.1, 2012.


Ackerley, D., A. Lorrey, J. A. Renwick, S. J. Phipps, S. Wagner, S. Dean, J. Singarayer, P. Valdes, A. Abe-Ouchi, R. Ohgaito and J. M. Jones: Using synoptic type analysis to understand New Zealand climate during the Mid-Holocene, Climate of the Past, 7, 1189-1207, doi:10.5194/cp-7-1189-2011, 2011.
Brito, A. S.: El Niño and El Niño Modoki impacts on South American rainfall, Master's thesis, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia, 2011.
Justino, F., A. Setzer, T. J. Bracegirdle, D. Mendes, A. Grimm, G. Dechiche and C. E. G. R. Schaefer: Harmonic analysis of climatological temperature over Antarctica: present day and greenhouse warming perspectives, International Journal of Climatology, 31, 514-530, doi:10.1002/joc.2090, 2011.
Kvale, K. F., K. J. Meissner, M. d'Orgeville, R. J. Matear, B. I. McNeil and M. H. England: The combined impact of CO2-dependent parameterisations of Redfield and Rain ratios on ocean carbonate saturation, Biogeosciences Discussions, 8, 6265-6280, doi:10.5194/bgd-8-6265-2011, 2011.
Mao, J., A. J. Pitman, S. J. Phipps, G. Abramowitz and Y. Wang: Global and regional coupled climate sensitivity to canopy interception parameterization, Climate Dynamics, 37, 171-186, doi:10.1007/s00382-010-0862-7, 2011.
Pitman, A. J., F. B. Avila, G. Abramowitz, Y. P. Wang, S. J. Phipps and N. de Noblet-Ducoudré: Importance of background climate in determining impact of land-cover change on regional climate, Nature Climate Change, 1, 472-475, doi:10.1038/nclimate1294, 2011.
Rojas, M. and P. I. Moreno: Atmospheric circulation changes and neoglacial conditions in the Southern Hemisphere mid-latitudes: insights from PMIP2 simulations at 6 kyr, Climate Dynamics, 37, 357-375, doi:10.1007/s00382-0100-0866-3, 2011.
Santoso, A., W. Cai, M. H. England and S. J. Phipps: The Role of the Indonesian Throughflow on ENSO Dynamics in a Coupled Climate Model, Journal of Climate, 24, 585-601, doi:10.1175/2010JCLI3745.1, 2011.
Schofield, H. J.: Holocene changes in mean sea-surface temperatures from Central Pacific fossil microatolls, Honours thesis, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, Australia, 2011.
Trevena, J.: Southern hemisphere thermohaline circulation stability and effect on global climate: results from coupled modeling, Master's thesis, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia, 2011.
Zhang, Q., Y. P. Wang, A. J. Pitman and Y. J. Dai: Limitations of nitrogen and phosphorous on the terrestrial carbon uptake in the 20th century, Geophysical Research Letters, 38, L22701, doi:10.1029/2011GL049244, 2011.


Fink, G. S. M.: Das Einzugsgebiet der Fulda - Untersuchung der Methoden der Hochwasserstatistik im Zeichen des Klimawandels, Doctor of Engineering thesis, University of Kassel, Germany, 2010. [In German]
Hiatt, T. C.: Sediment Flux Through the Rio Grande River: A Monsoonal Effect, Master's thesis, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, USA, 2010.
Phipps, S. J. and J. N. Brown: Understanding ENSO dynamics through the exploration of past climates, IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 9, 012010, doi:10.1088/1755-1315/9/1/012010, 2010.
Tao, W., W. Huijun and J. Dabang: Mid-Holocene East Asian summer climate as simulated by the PMIP2 models, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 288, 93-102, doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2010.01.034, 2010.
Zhang, Q., H. S. Sundqvist, A. Moberg, H. Körnich, J. Nilsson and K. Holmgren: Climate change between the mid and late Holocene in northern high latitudes - Part 2: Model-data comparisons, Climate of the Past, 6, 609-626, doi:10.5194/cp-6-609-2010, 2010.
Zhou, B. and P. Zhao: Modeling variations of summer upper tropospheric temperature and associated climate over the Asian Pacific region during the mid-Holocene, Journal of Geophysical Research, 115, D20109, doi:10.1029/2010JD014029, 2010.


Saito, K., S. Marchenko, V. Romanovsky, N. Bigelow, K. Yoshikawa and J. Walsh: Thermally-Conditioned Paleo-Permafrost Variations from Global Climate Modeling, SOLA, 5, 101-104, doi:10.2151/sola.2009-026, 2009.


Gunasekera, D., M. Ford, E. Heyhoe, A. Gurney, H. Ahammad, S. J. Phipps, I. Harman, J. Finnigan and M. Brede: Global Integrated Assessment Model: A New Analytical Tool for Assessing Climate Change Risks and Policies, Australian Commodities, 15, 195-216, 2008.
Harman, I. N., M. Ford, G. Jakeman, S. J. Phipps, M. Brede, J. J. Finnigan, D. Gunasekera and H. Ahammad: Assessment of future global scenarios for the Garnaut Climate Change Review: An application of the GIAM framework, CSIRO-ABARE Technical Report, 64pp., ISBN 9781921424748, 2008.


Smith, I.: Global climate modelling within CSIRO: 1981 to 2006, Australian Meteorological Magazine, 56, 153-166, 2007.


Phipps, S. J.: On Long-Term Climate Studies Using a Coupled General Circulation Model, PhD thesis, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia, 2006.

This page is maintained by Steven J Phipps. Last updated 21 November 2023.